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Clockwise from top left: Peter and Paul Fortress on Zayachy Island, Smolny Cathedral, Bronze Horseman on Senate Square, the Winter Palace, Trinity Cathedral, and the Moyka river with the General Staff Building.

An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city). In 1914, the name was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd (Russian: The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on May 27 [O. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world.), meaning "Lenin's City".

On 6 September 1991, the original name, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Petersburg." Local residents often refer to the city by its nickname, Piter.

Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was then called Ingermanland, which was inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, who was very interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with Europe. 1] 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate.

He needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war; he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital (or seat of government) as early as 1704.

The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets.

In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg.

The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century.

In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility‚ÄĒresulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son.

In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow.

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